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Advanced Manual
Smart Contract Audit

August 14, 2022

Audit requested by

Private Land

0xd883b14d0b2db45ff6c789ab83feba4183b6fc77

Private Land / Security Audit

Table of Contents

1. Audit Summary

1.1 Audit scope

1.2 Tokenomics

1.3 Source Code

2. Disclaimer

3. Global Overview

3.1 Informational issues

3.2 Low-risk issues

3.3 Medium-risk issues

3.4 High-risk issues

4. Vulnerabilities Findings

5. Contract Privileges

5.1 Maximum Fee Limit Check

5.2 Contract Pausability Check

5.3 Max Transaction Amount Check

5.4 Exclude From Fees Check

5.5 Ability to Mint Check

5.6 Ability to Blacklist Check

5.7 Owner Privileges Check

6. Notes

6.1 Notes by Coinsult

6.2 Notes by Private Land

7. Contract Snapshot

8. Website Review

9. Certificate of Proof

Private Land / Security Audit

Audit Summary

Audit Scope

Project Name

Private Land

Blockchain

Binance Smart Chain

Smart Contract Language

Solidity

Contract Address

0xd883b14d0b2db45ff6c789ab83feba4183b6fc77

Audit Method

Static Analysis, Manual Review

Date of Audit

14 August 2022

This audit report has been prepared by Coinsult’s experts at the request of the client. In this audit, the results of the static analysis and the manual code review will be presented. The purpose of the audit is to see if the functions work as intended, and to identify potential security issues within the smart contract.

The information in this report should be used to understand the risks associated with the smart contract. This report can be used as a guide for the development team on how the contract could possibly be improved by remediating the issues that were identified.

Private Land / Security Audit

Tokenomics

Rank Address Quantity (Token) Percentage
1 0xfbbf797569fcf9f02d0420b14f6492ae8428d847 10,000,000,000,000 100.0000%

Source Code

Coinsult was comissioned by Private Land to perform an audit based on the following code:
https://bscscan.com/address/0xd883b14d0b2db45ff6c789ab83feba4183b6fc77#code

Private Land / Security Audit

Disclaimer

This audit report has been prepared by Coinsult’s experts at the request of the client. In this audit, the results of the static analysis and the manual code review will be presented. The purpose of the audit is to see if the functions work as intended, and to identify potential security issues within the smart contract.

The information in this report should be used to understand the risks associated with the smart contract. This report can be used as a guide for the development team on how the contract could possibly be improved by remediating the issues that were identified.

Coinsult is not responsible if a project turns out to be a scam, rug-pull or honeypot. We only provide a detailed analysis for your own research.

Coinsult is not responsible for any financial losses. Nothing in this contract audit is financial advice, please do your own research.

The information provided in this audit is for informational purposes only and should not be considered investment advice. Coinsult does not endorse, recommend, support or suggest to invest in any project. 

Coinsult can not be held responsible for when a project turns out to be a rug-pull, honeypot or scam.

Private Land / Security Audit

Global Overview

Manual Code Review

In this audit report we will highlight the following issues:

Vulnerability Level

Total

Pending

Acknowledged

Resolved

0

0

0

0

4

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Privilege Overview

Coinsult checked the following privileges:

Contract Privilege

Description

Owner can mint?

Owner can blacklist?

Owner can set fees > 25%?

Owner can exclude from fees?

Owner can pause trading?

Owner can set Max TX amount?

More owner priviliges are listed later in the report.

Private Land / Security Audit

Require statement from other contract
				
					     function setBuyTax(uint256 buyTax) public onlyOwner {
         require(buyTax < 25, "wofo: max tax 25%");
        _Tax_On_Buy = buyTax;
    }
    function setSellTax(uint256 sellTax) public onlyOwner {
         require(sellTax < 25, "wofo: max tax 25%");
        _Tax_On_Sell = sellTax;
    }
				
			

Recommendation

Current require statements originate from the ‘WOFO’ token. This might confuse investors.

Private Land / Security Audit

No zero address validation for some functions

Detect missing zero address validation.

				
					    function setGameAddress(address _gameAddress) external onlyOwner {
        Wallet_Game = payable(_gameAddress);
    }
    function setMarketingAddress(address _marketingAddress) external onlyOwner {
        Wallet_Dev = payable(_marketingAddress);
    }
				
			

Recommendation

Check that the new address is not zero.

Exploit scenario

				
					contract C {

  modifier onlyAdmin {
    if (msg.sender != owner) throw;
    _;
  }

  function updateOwner(address newOwner) onlyAdmin external {
    owner = newOwner;
  }
}
				
			

Bob calls updateOwner without specifying the newOwner, soBob loses ownership of the contract.

Private Land / Security Audit

Missing events arithmetic

Detect missing events for critical arithmetic parameters.

				
					     function setBuyTax(uint256 buyTax) public onlyOwner {
         require(buyTax < 25, "wofo: max tax 25%");
        _Tax_On_Buy = buyTax;
    }
    function setSellTax(uint256 sellTax) public onlyOwner {
         require(sellTax < 25, "wofo: max tax 25%");
        _Tax_On_Sell = sellTax;
    }
				
			

Recommendation

Emit an event for critical parameter changes.

Exploit scenario

				
					contract C {

  modifier onlyAdmin {
    if (msg.sender != owner) throw;
    _;
  }

  function updateOwner(address newOwner) onlyAdmin external {
    owner = newOwner;
  }
}
				
			

updateOwner() has no event, so it is difficult to track off-chain changes in the buy price.

Private Land / Security Audit

Conformance to Solidity naming conventions

Allow _ at the beginning of the mixed_case match for private variables and unused parameters.

				
					    address payable public Wallet_Game = payable(0xbce51C2D3607e85401d8c5045239D9a25422756A); 
    address payable public Wallet_Dev = payable(0xa3B936eA9c7620bb775a018071AeF7F773577746);
    address payable public constant Wallet_Burn = payable(0x000000000000000000000000000000000000dEaD); 
				
			

Recommendation

Follow the Solidity naming convention.

Rule exceptions

  • Allow constant variable name/symbol/decimals to be lowercase (ERC20).
  • Allow _ at the beginning of the mixed_case match for private variables and unused parameters.

Private Land / Security Audit

Contract Privileges

Maximum Fee Limit Check

Coinsult tests if the owner of the smart contract can set the transfer, buy or sell fee to 25% or more. It is bad practice to set the fees to 25% or more, because owners can prevent healthy trading or even stop trading when the fees are set too high. 

Type of fee

Description

Transfer fee

Buy fee

Sell fee

Type of fee

Description

Max transfer fee

Max buy fee

Max sell fee

Private Land / Security Audit

Contract Pausability Check

Coinsult tests if the owner of the smart contract has the ability to pause the contract. If this is the case, users can no longer interact with the smart contract; users can no longer trade the token.

Privilege Check

Description

Can owner pause the contract?

Private Land / Security Audit

Max Transaction Amount Check

Coinsult tests if the owner of the smart contract can set the maximum amount of a transaction. If the transaction exceeds this limit, the transaction will revert. Owners could prevent normal transactions to take place if they abuse this function.

Privilege Check

Description

Can owner set max tx amount?

Private Land / Security Audit

Exclude From Fees Check

Coinsult tests if the owner of the smart contract can exclude addresses from paying tax fees. If the owner of the smart contract can exclude from fees, they could set high tax fees and exclude themselves from fees and benefit from 0% trading fees. However, some smart contracts require this function to exclude routers, dex, cex or other contracts / wallets from fees.

Privilege Check

Description

Can owner exclude from fees?

Private Land / Security Audit

Ability To Mint Check

Coinsult tests if the owner of the smart contract can mint new tokens. If the contract contains a mint function, we refer to the token’s total supply as non-fixed, allowing the token owner to “mint” more tokens whenever they want.

A mint function in the smart contract allows minting tokens at a later stage. A method to disable minting can also be added to stop the minting process irreversibly.

Minting tokens is done by sending a transaction that creates new tokens inside of the token smart contract. With the help of the smart contract function, an unlimited number of tokens can be created without spending additional energy or money.

Privilege Check

Description

Can owner mint?

Private Land / Security Audit

Ability To Blacklist Check

Coinsult tests if the owner of the smart contract can blacklist accounts from interacting with the smart contract. Blacklisting methods allow the contract owner to enter wallet addresses which are not allowed to interact with the smart contract. 

This method can be abused by token owners to prevent certain / all holders from trading the token. However, blacklists might be good for tokens that want to rule out certain addresses from interacting with a smart contract.

Privilege Check

Description

Can owner blacklist?

Private Land / Security Audit

Other Owner Privileges Check

Coinsult lists all important contract methods which the owner can interact with.

✅ No other important owner privileges to mention.

Private Land / Security Audit

Notes

Notes by Private Land

No notes provided by the team.

Notes by Coinsult

✅ No notes provided by Coinsult

Private Land / Security Audit

Contract Snapshot

This is how the constructor of the contract looked at the time of auditing the smart contract.

				
					contract PrivateLand is Context, IERC20 { 
    using SafeMath for uint256;
    using Address for address;
    address private _owner;

    event OwnershipTransferred(address indexed previousOwner, address indexed newOwner);
    event ExcludeFromFees(address indexed account, bool isExcluded);

    function owner() public view virtual returns (address) {
        return _owner;
    }

    modifier onlyOwner() {
        require(owner() == _msgSender(), "Ownable: caller is not the owner");
        _;
    }

    function renounceOwnership() external virtual onlyOwner {
        emit OwnershipTransferred(_owner, address(0));
        _owner = address(0);
    }
    
    function transferOwnership(address newOwner) public virtual onlyOwner {
        require(newOwner != address(0), "WOFO: new owner is the zero address");
        emit OwnershipTransferred(_owner, newOwner);
        _owner = newOwner;
    }

    mapping (address => uint256) private _tOwned;
    mapping (address => mapping (address => uint256)) private _allowances;
    mapping (address => bool) public _isExcludedFromFee; 

    address payable public Wallet_Game = payable(0xbce51C2D3607e85401d8c5045239D9a25422756A); 
    address payable public Wallet_Dev = payable(0xa3B936eA9c7620bb775a018071AeF7F773577746);
    address payable public constant Wallet_Burn = payable(0x000000000000000000000000000000000000dEaD); 

    uint8 private constant _decimals = 9;
    uint256 private _tTotal = 10**13 * 10**_decimals;
    string private constant _name = "Private Land"; 
    string private constant _symbol = unicode"PLAND"; 
				
			

Private Land / Security Audit

Website Review

Coinsult checks the website completely manually and looks for visual, technical and textual errors. We also look at the security, speed and accessibility of the website. In short, a complete check to see if the website meets the current standard of the web development industry. 

Type of check

Description

Mobile friendly?

Contains jQuery errors?

Is SSL secured?

Contains spelling errors?

Private Land / Security Audit

Certificate of Proof

Private Land

Audited by Coinsult.net

Date: 14 August 2022

Coinsult

coinsult.net

End of report
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