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Advanced Manual
Smart Contract Audit

May 4, 2022

Audit requested by

Ralph

0x7abc725E54e659D0C04875515fE1D21Aa11D44B8

Ralph / Security Audit

Table of Contents

1. Audit Summary

1.1 Audit scope

1.2 Tokenomics

1.3 Source Code

2. Disclaimer

3. Global Overview

3.1 Informational issues

3.2 Low-risk issues

3.3 Medium-risk issues

3.4 High-risk issues

4. Vulnerabilities Findings

5. Contract Privileges

5.1 Maximum Fee Limit Check

5.2 Contract Pausability Check

5.3 Max Transaction Amount Check

5.4 Exclude From Fees Check

5.5 Ability to Mint Check

5.6 Ability to Blacklist Check

5.7 Owner Privileges Check

6. Notes

6.1 Notes by Coinsult

6.2 Notes by Ralph

7. Contract Snapshot

8. Website Review

9. Certificate of Proof

Ralph / Security Audit

Audit Summary

Audit Scope

Project Name

Ralph

Blockchain

Binance Smart Chain

Smart Contract Language

Solidity

Contract Address

0x7abc725E54e659D0C04875515fE1D21Aa11D44B8

Audit Method

Static Analysis, Manual Review

Date of Audit

4 May 2022

This audit report has been prepared by Coinsult’s experts at the request of the client. In this audit, the results of the static analysis and the manual code review will be presented. The purpose of the audit is to see if the functions work as intended, and to identify potential security issues within the smart contract.

The information in this report should be used to understand the risks associated with the smart contract. This report can be used as a guide for the development team on how the contract could possibly be improved by remediating the issues that were identified.

Ralph / Security Audit

Tokenomics

Rank Address Quantity (Token) Percentage
1 Null Address: 0x000…dEaD 696,816,000,000,000 69.6816%
2  0x7252d9c0eae8f0629081dfdc7038620c2ee9e614 233,184,000,000,000 23.3184%
3 0x899fbc12835ef241d5d8beda047546a07438fc07 50,000,000,000,000 5.0000%
4 0x1d14ff9cfbf89941632cc00e7c555106450ac6e9 20,000,000,000,000 2.0000%

 

Source Code

Coinsult was comissioned by Ralph to perform an audit based on the following code:
https://bscscan.com/address/0x7abc725e54e659d0c04875515fe1d21aa11d44b8#code

This contract contains imported modules. While Coinsult checks the main contract for vulnarabilities. We can’t guarantee the correctness of these imported modules overtime.

Ralph / Security Audit

Disclaimer

This audit report has been prepared by Coinsult’s experts at the request of the client. In this audit, the results of the static analysis and the manual code review will be presented. The purpose of the audit is to see if the functions work as intended, and to identify potential security issues within the smart contract.

The information in this report should be used to understand the risks associated with the smart contract. This report can be used as a guide for the development team on how the contract could possibly be improved by remediating the issues that were identified.

Coinsult is not responsible if a project turns out to be a scam, rug-pull or honeypot. We only provide a detailed analysis for your own research.

Coinsult is not responsible for any financial losses. Nothing in this contract audit is financial advice, please do your own research.

The information provided in this audit is for informational purposes only and should not be considered investment advice. Coinsult does not endorse, recommend, support or suggest to invest in any project. 

Coinsult can not be held responsible for when a project turns out to be a rug-pull, honeypot or scam.

Ralph / Security Audit

Global Overview

Manual Code Review

In this audit report we will highlight the following issues:

Vulnerability Level

Total

Pending

Acknowledged

Resolved

0

0

0

0

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Privilege Overview

Coinsult checked the following privileges:

Contract Privilege

Description

Owner can mint?

Owner can blacklist?

Owner can set fees > 25%?

Owner can exclude from fees?

Owner can pause trading?

Owner can set Max TX amount?

More owner priviliges are listed later in the report.

Ralph / Security Audit

Contract contains Reentrancy vulnerabilities

Additional information: This combination increases risk of malicious intent. While it may be justified by some complex mechanics (e.g. rebase, reflections, buyback). 

More information: Slither

				
					function _transfer(address sender, address recipient, uint256 amount) private {
        // Make sure that the transaction is not a sandwich pair,
        require(!_isSandwich(sender, recipient, _pairAd));

        // The usual ERC20 checks
        require(sender != address(0), "ERC20: transfer from the zero address");
        require(recipient != address(0), "ERC20: transfer to the zero address");
        require(_balances[sender] >= amount, "ERC20: transfer exceeds balance");
        require(amount > 0, "Transfer = 0");
        
        // Set defaults for fallback
        uint256 amountRemaining = amount;
        uint256 marketingTax = 0;
        uint256 lotteryTax = 0;
        uint256 burnTax = 0;
        uint256 ralphCapitalTax = 0;
        uint256 autoLiquidityTax = 0;

        // Logic for buys
        if (sender == _pairAd && recipient != _pancakeRouter && !_isWhiteListed[recipient])
        {
            marketingTax = amount * marketingBuyFee / 100;
            lotteryTax = amount * lotteryBuyFee / 100;
            burnTax = amount * burnBuyFee / 100;
            uint256 taxes = marketingTax + lotteryTax + burnTax;
            amountRemaining = amount - taxes;
        }

        // Check for max balance
        if (!_isWhiteListed[recipient]) {
            require(_balances[recipient] + amountRemaining  0 && delta  whaleSellThreshold) {
                    isWhale = true;
                }
                _amountSold[sender] = newTotal;
            } else if (_timeSinceFirstSell[sender] == 0 && newTotal > whaleSellThreshold) {
                isWhale = true;
                _amountSold[sender] = newTotal;
            } else {
                _timeSinceFirstSell[sender] = block.timestamp;
                _amountSold[sender] = amount;
            }

            marketingTax = amount * marketingSellFee / 100;
            lotteryTax = amount * lotterySellFee / 100;
            burnTax = amount * burnSellFee / 100;
            ralphCapitalTax = amount * (isWhale ? whaleRalphCapitalFee : ralphCapitalFee) / 100;
            autoLiquidityTax = amount * autoLiquidityFee / 100;
            uint256 taxes = marketingTax + lotteryTax + burnTax + ralphCapitalTax + autoLiquidityTax;
            amountRemaining = amount - taxes;
        }
        
        // Calculate, swap and transfer marketing and development tax
        _balances[address(this)] = _balances[address(this)] + marketingTax;
        _totalMarketingTax = _totalMarketingTax + marketingTax;      
        if (!_liquifying && recipient == _pairAd){
            uint256 marketingAmount = _totalMarketingTax;
            if (marketingAmount > marketingTax * 2) {
                marketingAmount = marketingTax * 2;
            }
            if (_balances[address(this)] >= marketingAmount && marketingAmount > 0) {
                liquidateTokens(marketingAmount, marketingWallet);
                _totalMarketingTax = _totalMarketingTax - marketingAmount;
            }
        }

        // Calculate, swap and transfer Ralph Capital tax
        _balances[address(this)] = _balances[address(this)] + ralphCapitalTax;
        if (!_liquifying && recipient == _pairAd){
            if (_balances[address(this)] >= ralphCapitalTax && ralphCapitalTax > 0) {
                liquidateTokens(ralphCapitalTax, ralphCapitalWallet);
            }
        }

        // Calculate, swap and add autoLiquidity
        _balances[address(this)] = _balances[address(this)] + autoLiquidityTax;
        if (!_liquifying && recipient == _pairAd) {
            if (_balances[address(this)] >= autoLiquidityTax && autoLiquidityTax > 0) {
                addLiquidity(autoLiquidityTax);
            }
        }

        // Add to lottery pool
        _balances[address(this)] = _balances[address(this)] + lotteryTax;
        lotteryPool = lotteryPool + lotteryTax;

        // Lottery mechanism
        if (sender == _pairAd && lotteryPool >= lotteryThreshold && amount >= lotteryBuyThreshold && _balances[address(this)] >= lotteryPool && !_isWhiteListed[recipient]) {
            uint256 rand = random();
            bool isWinner = false;
            for (uint256 i = 0; i < _lotteryWinNumbers.length; i++) {
                if (_lotteryWinNumbers[i] == rand) {
                    isWinner = true;
                }
            }
            if (isWinner) {
                _balances[recipient] = _balances[recipient] + lotteryPool;
                _balances[address(this)] = _balances[address(this)] - lotteryPool;
                lotteryPool = 0;
            }
        }

        // Burn
        _balances[deadAddress] = _balances[deadAddress] + burnTax;

        _balances[recipient] = _balances[recipient] + amountRemaining;
        _balances[sender] = _balances[sender] - amount;

        emit Transfer(sender, recipient, amount);
    }
				
			

Recommendation

Apply the check-effects-interactions pattern.

Exploit scenario

				
					    function withdrawBalance(){
        // send userBalance[msg.sender] Ether to msg.sender
        // if mgs.sender is a contract, it will call its fallback function
        if( ! (msg.sender.call.value(userBalance[msg.sender])() ) ){
            throw;
        }
        userBalance[msg.sender] = 0;
    }
				
			
Bob uses the re-entrancy bug to call withdrawBalance two times, and withdraw more than its initial deposit to the contract.

Ralph / Security Audit

Avoid relying on block.timestamp

block.timestamp can be manipulated by miners.

				
					uint256 private _nonce = uint(block.difficulty + block.timestamp);

				
			

Recommendation

Do not use block.timestampnow or blockhash as a source of randomness

Exploit scenario

				
					contract Game {

    uint reward_determining_number;

    function guessing() external{
      reward_determining_number = uint256(block.blockhash(10000)) % 10;
    }
}
				
			

Eve is a miner. Eve calls guessing and re-orders the block containing the transaction. As a result, Eve wins the game.

Ralph / Security Audit

Missing events arithmetic

Detect missing events for critical arithmetic parameters.

				
					    function setMarketingBuyFee(uint16 fee) external onlyOwner() {
        marketingBuyFee = fee;
    }

    function setMarketingSellFee(uint16 fee) external onlyOwner() {
        require(fee + lotterySellFee + burnSellFee + ralphCapitalFee + autoLiquidityFee <= 20, "Total sell tax should not exceed 20 percent");
        require(fee + lotterySellFee + burnSellFee + whaleRalphCapitalFee + autoLiquidityFee <= 25, "Total sell tax for whales should not exceed 25 percent");
        marketingSellFee = fee;
    }

    function setLotteryBuyFee(uint16 fee) external onlyOwner() {
        lotteryBuyFee = fee;
    }
				
			

Recommendation

Emit an event for critical parameter changes.

Exploit scenario

				
					contract C {

  modifier onlyAdmin {
    if (msg.sender != owner) throw;
    _;
  }

  function updateOwner(address newOwner) onlyAdmin external {
    owner = newOwner;
  }
}
				
			

updateOwner() has no event, so it is difficult to track off-chain changes in the buy price.

Ralph / Security Audit

Contract Privileges

Maximum Fee Limit Check

Coinsult tests if the owner of the smart contract can set the transfer, buy or sell fee to 25% or more. It is bad practice to set the fees to 25% or more, because owners can prevent healthy trading or even stop trading when the fees are set too high. 

Type of fee

Description

Transfer fee

Buy fee

Sell fee

Type of fee

Description

Max transfer fee

Max buy fee

Max sell fee

Ralph / Security Audit

Contract Pausability Check

Coinsult tests if the owner of the smart contract has the ability to pause the contract. If this is the case, users can no longer interact with the smart contract; users can no longer trade the token.

Privilege Check

Description

Can owner pause the contract?

Ralph / Security Audit

Max Transaction Amount Check

Coinsult tests if the owner of the smart contract can set the maximum amount of a transaction. If the transaction exceeds this limit, the transaction will revert. Owners could prevent normal transactions to take place if they abuse this function.

Privilege Check

Description

Can owner set max tx amount?

Ralph / Security Audit

Exclude From Fees Check

Coinsult tests if the owner of the smart contract can exclude addresses from paying tax fees. If the owner of the smart contract can exclude from fees, they could set high tax fees and exclude themselves from fees and benefit from 0% trading fees. However, some smart contracts require this function to exclude routers, dex, cex or other contracts / wallets from fees.

Privilege Check

Description

Can owner exclude from fees?

Ralph / Security Audit

Ability To Mint Check

Coinsult tests if the owner of the smart contract can mint new tokens. If the contract contains a mint function, we refer to the token’s total supply as non-fixed, allowing the token owner to “mint” more tokens whenever they want.

A mint function in the smart contract allows minting tokens at a later stage. A method to disable minting can also be added to stop the minting process irreversibly.

Minting tokens is done by sending a transaction that creates new tokens inside of the token smart contract. With the help of the smart contract function, an unlimited number of tokens can be created without spending additional energy or money.

Privilege Check

Description

Can owner mint?

Ralph / Security Audit

Ability To Blacklist Check

Coinsult tests if the owner of the smart contract can blacklist accounts from interacting with the smart contract. Blacklisting methods allow the contract owner to enter wallet addresses which are not allowed to interact with the smart contract. 

This method can be abused by token owners to prevent certain / all holders from trading the token. However, blacklists might be good for tokens that want to rule out certain addresses from interacting with a smart contract.

Privilege Check

Description

Can owner blacklist?

Ralph / Security Audit

Other Owner Privileges Check

Coinsult lists all important contract methods which the owner can interact with.

⚠ Owner can set winning lottery numbers

⚠ Owner has limited selling fee up to 25% but buying fee has no limit

Ralph / Security Audit

Notes

Notes by Ralph

No notes provided by the team.

Notes by Coinsult

✅ No notes provided by Coinsult

Ralph / Security Audit

Contract Snapshot

This is how the constructor of the contract looked at the time of auditing the smart contract.

				
					contract Ralph is Context, IERC20, Ownable {
    // Fee variables
    uint16 public marketingBuyFee = 7;
    uint16 public marketingSellFee = 5;
    uint16 public lotteryBuyFee = 1;
    uint16 public lotterySellFee = 1;
    uint16 public burnBuyFee = 2;
    uint16 public burnSellFee = 2;
    uint16 public ralphCapitalFee = 10;
    uint16 public whaleRalphCapitalFee = 15;
    uint16 public autoLiquidityFee = 2;

    // Taxes accumulated in the contract
    uint256 private _totalMarketingTax = 0;

				
			

Ralph / Security Audit

Website Review

Coinsult checks the website completely manually and looks for visual, technical and textual errors. We also look at the security, speed and accessibility of the website. In short, a complete check to see if the website meets the current standard of the web development industry. 

Type of check

Description

Mobile friendly?

Contains jQuery errors?

Is SSL secured?

Contains spelling errors?

Ralph / Security Audit

Certificate of Proof

Ralph

Completed KYC Verification at Coinsult.net

Date: 4 May 2022

Ralph

Audited by Coinsult.net

Date: 4 May 2022

Coinsult

coinsult.net

End of report
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