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Advanced Manual
Smart Contract Audit

May 12, 2022

Audit requested by

Umbrella Protocol

0x443fA16a2Ee89983A9558Ab93C85B67e2afe92Af

Umbrella Protocol / Security Audit

Table of Contents

1. Audit Summary

1.1 Audit scope

1.2 Tokenomics

1.3 Source Code

2. Disclaimer

3. Global Overview

3.1 Informational issues

3.2 Low-risk issues

3.3 Medium-risk issues

3.4 High-risk issues

4. Vulnerabilities Findings

5. Contract Privileges

5.1 Maximum Fee Limit Check

5.2 Contract Pausability Check

5.3 Max Transaction Amount Check

5.4 Exclude From Fees Check

5.5 Ability to Mint Check

5.6 Ability to Blacklist Check

5.7 Owner Privileges Check

6. Notes

6.1 Notes by Coinsult

6.2 Notes by Umbrella Protocol

7. Contract Snapshot

8. Website Review

9. Certificate of Proof

Umbrella Protocol / Security Audit

Audit Summary

Audit Scope

Project Name

Umbrella Protocol

Blockchain

Binance Smart Chain

Smart Contract Language

Solidity

Contract Address

0x443fA16a2Ee89983A9558Ab93C85B67e2afe92Af

Audit Method

Static Analysis, Manual Review

Date of Audit

12 May 2022

This audit report has been prepared by Coinsult’s experts at the request of the client. In this audit, the results of the static analysis and the manual code review will be presented. The purpose of the audit is to see if the functions work as intended, and to identify potential security issues within the smart contract.

The information in this report should be used to understand the risks associated with the smart contract. This report can be used as a guide for the development team on how the contract could possibly be improved by remediating the issues that were identified.

Umbrella Protocol / Security Audit

Tokenomics

Rank Address Quantity (Token) Percentage
1 Null Address: 0x000…dEaD 650,000,000,000,000 65.0000%
2 0xb2bf5d5f19ab43a7902d36ef5069e8b6ca1b7354 220,000,000,000,000 22.0000%
3 0x7947d1fad96206c51c33c163fcb38983e1e1e4ea 50,000,000,000,000 5.0000%
4 0xd24959b67a4d708cc13d2581bb204a55bb2fb10d 50,000,000,000,000 5.0000%
5 0x3c0ed09a087f453e1c51aa400d0d5c41582f02d4 15,000,000,000,000 1.5000%

Source Code

Coinsult was comissioned by Umbrella Protocol to perform an audit based on the following code:
https://bscscan.com/address/0x443fA16a2Ee89983A9558Ab93C85B67e2afe92Af#code

Umbrella Protocol / Security Audit

Disclaimer

This audit report has been prepared by Coinsult’s experts at the request of the client. In this audit, the results of the static analysis and the manual code review will be presented. The purpose of the audit is to see if the functions work as intended, and to identify potential security issues within the smart contract.

The information in this report should be used to understand the risks associated with the smart contract. This report can be used as a guide for the development team on how the contract could possibly be improved by remediating the issues that were identified.

Coinsult is not responsible if a project turns out to be a scam, rug-pull or honeypot. We only provide a detailed analysis for your own research.

Coinsult is not responsible for any financial losses. Nothing in this contract audit is financial advice, please do your own research.

The information provided in this audit is for informational purposes only and should not be considered investment advice. Coinsult does not endorse, recommend, support or suggest to invest in any project. 

Coinsult can not be held responsible for when a project turns out to be a rug-pull, honeypot or scam.

Umbrella Protocol / Security Audit

Global Overview

Manual Code Review

In this audit report we will highlight the following issues:

Vulnerability Level

Total

Pending

Acknowledged

Resolved

0

0

0

0

8

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Privilege Overview

Coinsult checked the following privileges:

Contract Privilege

Description

Owner can mint?

Owner can blacklist?

Owner can set fees > 25%?

Owner can exclude from fees?

Owner can pause trading?

Owner can set Max TX amount?

More owner priviliges are listed later in the report.

Umbrella Protocol / Security Audit

Contract contains Reentrancy vulnerabilities

Additional information: This combination increases risk of malicious intent. While it may be justified by some complex mechanics (e.g. rebase, reflections, buyback). 

More information: Slither

				
					    function _transfer(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 amount
    ) internal override {

        require(from != address(0), "ERC20: transfer from the zero address");
        require(to != address(0), "ERC20: transfer to the zero address");
        require(!_isBlacklisted[from], 'Blacklisted address');

        if(amount == 0) {
            super._transfer(from, to, 0);
            return;
        }

        // No adding liquidity before launched
        if (!liquidityLaunched) {
            if (to == uniswapV2Pair) {
                liquidityLaunched = true;
                // high tax ends in x blocks
                lastSnipeTaxBlock = block.number + snipeBlocks;
            }
        }

        //antibot block
        if (from != address(_PresaleAddress)) {
            if(liquidityLaunched && block.number = swapTokensAtAmount;

        if( canSwap &&
            !swapping &&
            !automatedMarketMakerPairs[from] &&
            from != owner() &&
            to != owner()
        ) {
				
			

Recommendation

Apply the check-effects-interactions pattern.

Exploit scenario

				
					    function withdrawBalance(){
        // send userBalance[msg.sender] Ether to msg.sender
        // if mgs.sender is a contract, it will call its fallback function
        if( ! (msg.sender.call.value(userBalance[msg.sender])() ) ){
            throw;
        }
        userBalance[msg.sender] = 0;
    }
				
			
Bob uses the re-entrancy bug to call withdrawBalance two times, and withdraw more than its initial deposit to the contract.

Umbrella Protocol / Security Audit

Avoid relying on block.timestamp

block.timestamp can be manipulated by miners.

				
					        // make the swap
        uniswapV2Router.swapExactTokensForETHSupportingFeeOnTransferTokens(
            tokenAmount,
            0, // accept any amount of ETH
            path,
            address(this),
            block.timestamp
        );
				
			

Recommendation

Do not use block.timestampnow or blockhash as a source of randomness

Exploit scenario

				
					contract Game {

    uint reward_determining_number;

    function guessing() external{
      reward_determining_number = uint256(block.blockhash(10000)) % 10;
    }
}
				
			

Eve is a miner. Eve calls guessing and re-orders the block containing the transaction. As a result, Eve wins the game.

Umbrella Protocol / Security Audit

Too many digits

Literals with many digits are difficult to read and review.

				
					    // use by default 300,000 gas to process auto-claiming dividends
    uint256 public gasForProcessing = 300000;
				
			

Recommendation

Exploit scenario

				
					contract MyContract{
    uint 1_ether = 10000000000000000000; 
}
				
			

While 1_ether looks like 1 ether, it is 10 ether. As a result, it’s likely to be used incorrectly.

Umbrella Protocol / Security Audit

No zero address validation for some functions

Detect missing zero address validation.

				
					    function setDevWallet(address payable wallet) external onlyOwner{
        _DevWalletAddress = wallet;
    }

    function setPresaleContract(address payable wallet) external onlyOwner{
        _PresaleAddress = wallet;
        excludeFromFees(_PresaleAddress, true);
    }

    function setFoudWalletAddress(address payable wallet) external onlyOwner{
        _FoudWalletAddress = wallet;
    }
				
			

Recommendation

Check that the new address is not zero.

Exploit scenario

				
					contract C {

  modifier onlyAdmin {
    if (msg.sender != owner) throw;
    _;
  }

  function updateOwner(address newOwner) onlyAdmin external {
    owner = newOwner;
  }
}
				
			

Bob calls updateOwner without specifying the newOwner, soBob loses ownership of the contract.

Umbrella Protocol / Security Audit

Functions that send Ether to arbitrary destinations

Unprotected call to a function sending Ether to an arbitrary address.

				
					        // add the liquidity
        uniswapV2Router.addLiquidityETH{value: ethAmount}(
            address(this),
            tokenAmount,
            0, // slippage is unavoidable
            0, // slippage is unavoidable
            address(0),
            block.timestamp
        );
				
			

Recommendation

Ensure that an arbitrary user cannot withdraw unauthorized funds.

Exploit scenario

				
					contract ArbitrarySend{
    address destination;
    function setDestination(){
        destination = msg.sender;
    }

    function withdraw() public{
        destination.transfer(this.balance);
    }
}
				
			

Bob calls setDestination and withdraw. As a result he withdraws the contract’s balance.

Umbrella Protocol / Security Audit

Missing events arithmetic

Detect missing events for critical arithmetic parameters.

				
					    function setFee(
        uint256 _USDTRewardsFee,
        uint256 _USDTRewardsShare, 
        uint256 _LPShare
    ) public onlyOwner {
        USDTRewardsFee = _USDTRewardsFee;
        USDTRewardsShare = _USDTRewardsShare;
        LPShare = _LPShare;
    }
				
			

Recommendation

Emit an event for critical parameter changes.

Exploit scenario

				
					contract C {

  modifier onlyAdmin {
    if (msg.sender != owner) throw;
    _;
  }

  function updateOwner(address newOwner) onlyAdmin external {
    owner = newOwner;
  }
}
				
			

updateOwner() has no event, so it is difficult to track off-chain changes in the buy price.

Umbrella Protocol / Security Audit

Conformance to Solidity naming conventions

Allow _ at the beginning of the mixed_case match for private variables and unused parameters.

				
					    address public _PresaleAddress = 0x000000000000000000000000000000000000dEaD;
				
			

Recommendation

Follow the Solidity naming convention.

Rule exceptions

  • Allow constant variable name/symbol/decimals to be lowercase (ERC20).
  • Allow _ at the beginning of the mixed_case match for private variables and unused parameters.

Umbrella Protocol / Security Audit

Costly operations inside a loop

Costly operations inside a loop might waste gas, so optimizations are justified. 

				
					    		if(canAutoClaim(lastClaimTimes[account])) {
    			if(processAccount(payable(account), true)) {
    				claims++;
    			}
    		}

    		iterations++;

    		uint256 newGasLeft = gasleft();
				
			

Recommendation

Use a local variable to hold the loop computation result.

Exploit scenario

				
					contract CostlyOperationsInLoop{

    function bad() external{
        for (uint i=0; i < loop_count; i++){
            state_variable++;
        }
    }

    function good() external{
      uint local_variable = state_variable;
      for (uint i=0; i < loop_count; i++){
        local_variable++;
      }
      state_variable = local_variable;
    }
}
				
			

Incrementing state_variable in a loop incurs a lot of gas because of expensive SSTOREs, which might lead to an out-of-gas.

Owner can mint new tokens

				
					function setBalance(address payable account, uint256 newBalance) external onlyOwner {
    	if(excludedFromDividends[account]) {
    		return;
    	}

    	if(newBalance &gt;= minimumTokenBalanceForDividends) {
            _setBalance(account, newBalance);
    		tokenHoldersMap.set(account, newBalance);
    	}
    	else {
            _setBalance(account, 0);
    		tokenHoldersMap.remove(account);
    	}

    	processAccount(account, true);
    }
				
			

Recommendation

No recommendation
Owner can blacklist all addresses
				
					    function blacklistAddress(address account, bool value) external onlyOwner{
        _isBlacklisted[account] = value;
    }
				
			

Recommendation

Consider the option to only blacklist contract addresses or use anti-bot methods for better transparancy

Umbrella Protocol / Security Audit

Contract Privileges

Maximum Fee Limit Check

Coinsult tests if the owner of the smart contract can set the transfer, buy or sell fee to 25% or more. It is bad practice to set the fees to 25% or more, because owners can prevent healthy trading or even stop trading when the fees are set too high. 

Type of fee

Description

Transfer fee

Buy fee

Sell fee

Type of fee

Description

Max transfer fee

Max buy fee

Max sell fee

Umbrella Protocol / Security Audit

Contract Pausability Check

Coinsult tests if the owner of the smart contract has the ability to pause the contract. If this is the case, users can no longer interact with the smart contract; users can no longer trade the token.

Privilege Check

Description

Can owner pause the contract?

Umbrella Protocol / Security Audit

Max Transaction Amount Check

Coinsult tests if the owner of the smart contract can set the maximum amount of a transaction. If the transaction exceeds this limit, the transaction will revert. Owners could prevent normal transactions to take place if they abuse this function.

Privilege Check

Description

Can owner set max tx amount?

Umbrella Protocol / Security Audit

Exclude From Fees Check

Coinsult tests if the owner of the smart contract can exclude addresses from paying tax fees. If the owner of the smart contract can exclude from fees, they could set high tax fees and exclude themselves from fees and benefit from 0% trading fees. However, some smart contracts require this function to exclude routers, dex, cex or other contracts / wallets from fees.

Privilege Check

Description

Can owner exclude from fees?

Umbrella Protocol / Security Audit

Ability To Mint Check

Coinsult tests if the owner of the smart contract can mint new tokens. If the contract contains a mint function, we refer to the token’s total supply as non-fixed, allowing the token owner to “mint” more tokens whenever they want.

A mint function in the smart contract allows minting tokens at a later stage. A method to disable minting can also be added to stop the minting process irreversibly.

Minting tokens is done by sending a transaction that creates new tokens inside of the token smart contract. With the help of the smart contract function, an unlimited number of tokens can be created without spending additional energy or money.

Privilege Check

Description

Can owner mint?

Umbrella Protocol / Security Audit

Ability To Blacklist Check

Coinsult tests if the owner of the smart contract can blacklist accounts from interacting with the smart contract. Blacklisting methods allow the contract owner to enter wallet addresses which are not allowed to interact with the smart contract. 

This method can be abused by token owners to prevent certain / all holders from trading the token. However, blacklists might be good for tokens that want to rule out certain addresses from interacting with a smart contract.

Privilege Check

Description

Can owner blacklist?

Umbrella Protocol / Security Audit

Other Owner Privileges Check

Coinsult lists all important contract methods which the owner can interact with.

Sell fees are 26%

Umbrella Protocol / Security Audit

Notes

Notes by Umbrella Protocol

No notes provided by the team.

Notes by Coinsult

✅ No notes provided by Coinsult

Umbrella Protocol / Security Audit

Contract Snapshot

This is how the constructor of the contract looked at the time of auditing the smart contract.

				
					contract UmbrellaProtocol is ERC20, Ownable {
    using SafeMath for uint256;

    IUniswapV2Router02 public uniswapV2Router;
    address public  uniswapV2Pair;

    bool private swapping;

    USDTDividendTracker public dividendTracker;

    address public deadWallet = 0x000000000000000000000000000000000000dEaD;
    address public _DevWalletAddress = 0x3C0ed09a087f453e1c51aA400D0d5c41582F02d4;
    address public _FoudWalletAddress = 0x64552ed8AAfe252Bee763fbe007FD21D7c93EDd8;

    address public immutable USDT = address(0x55d398326f99059fF775485246999027B3197955);

    uint256 public totalSupply_ = 1000 * (10**12) * (10**18);

    uint256 public swapTokensAtAmount;
    
    mapping(address =&gt; bool) public _isBlacklisted;

    uint256 public USDTRewardsFee = 10;
    uint256 public USDTRewardsShare = 4;
    uint256 public LPShare = 1;

    // anti bot
    address public _PresaleAddress = 0x000000000000000000000000000000000000dEaD;
    bool public liquidityLaunched = false; // to track if launchLiquidity function has been called
    bool public isFirstLaunch = true; // to track if launchLiquidity function has been called
    uint256 public lastSnipeTaxBlock; // set to blocks after liq added
    uint8 public snipeBlocks = 0;

    // use by default 300,000 gas to process auto-claiming dividends
    uint256 public gasForProcessing = 300000;

     // exlcude from fees and max transaction amount
    mapping (address =&gt; bool) private _isExcludedFromFees;
				
			

Umbrella Protocol / Security Audit

Website Review

Coinsult checks the website completely manually and looks for visual, technical and textual errors. We also look at the security, speed and accessibility of the website. In short, a complete check to see if the website meets the current standard of the web development industry. 

Type of check

Description

Mobile friendly?

Contains jQuery errors?

Is SSL secured?

Contains spelling errors?

Umbrella Protocol / Security Audit

Certificate of Proof

Umbrella Protocol

Audited by Coinsult.net

Date: 12 May 2022

Coinsult

coinsult.net

End of report
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